Differences in Nations Anthropology
These dimensions determine the organizational culture of an organization. For instance, in high power distant societies, the traditions and norms adopted will entail little interaction between management and employees. As such, the nature of organizational culture is that it is also subject to cultural factors such as diversity and variations thereof. This is because properties such as power distance, uncertainty avoidant, individualism, and masculinity vary across cultures and continents, meaning that organizational culture also has a cultural aspect or is subject to cultural aspects.
They apply for visas and travel to these countries especially in the United States of America so that they may look for green pastures,. That is what they do. Some turn out to be allowing it to be in daily life whenever for some reality be more complicated since they will find on their own beneath the bars brought about by engagement in unlawful behavior they will might probably would rather have in an attempt to endure. One another massive obstacle they can are up against is racism.
On the same point, scholars argue that an organizational culture that encourages creative solutions encourages a firm’s innovativeness as well as the generation of innovative ways of problem solving (Dasanayaka, 2009). Dasanayaka (2009) argues that innovation is a non-routine exercise and as such uncertainty about the activities to be executed is expected (Dasanayaka, 2009). As a result of this, if an organization has an organizational culture but lacks rules explicitly communicated, then innovation and creativity can be greatly hindered within the organization (Dasanayaka, 2009).
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The classification approach on the other hand perceives organizational culture as a range of ideas “which can be imitated by two or more variables” (Shahzad, 2012). The nature of organizational culture is elucidated using the imagery of an onion to show that organizational culture is composed of different layers which vary in significance (Shahzad, 2012). The most significant is the values and norms which are invisible (Shahzad, 2012). Thus organizational culture is no perceived as a permanent solution to a specific problem, but is perceived as more flexible, and able to be imitated by two or more variables
However, arguably the theories that seek to explain the nature of organizational culture are the theories proposed by Hofstede in his dimensions of organizational culture.
According to Holbeche (2006), most organizations are resistant to change even when pressure dictating a change mounts against them and the main reason for this organizational behavior is as a result of organizational culture. This is because culture has been identified as one of the factors that changes behavior, and as such, the organizational culture will influence the behavior and attitudes of the employees or management concerning change. Today, organizational culture is not seen as simply an avenue for increasing a firm’s performance, but a tool for achieving so much more in business. This stand position can be justified by assessing the definition of organizational culture form Holbeche’s work. Holbeche (2006) defines organizational culture with great simplicity by describing it as “how we do things here.” According o Holbeche (200) culture has been perceived as one of the factors that promote a sense of identity among organizational employees, since it is essentially an unwritten guideline of how employees are supposed to behave within the context of the organization. As a result of this, several theories have been put forward which relate organizational culture to some of its perceived advantages.
Holbeche (2006) also notes that in as much as strategic innovation along with product improvement and flexibility are central in an organization’s working processes; these can only be achieved if the employees are willing to put in the necessary hard work, which is facilitated by a good organizational culture. So arguably, the organizational culture greatly affects innovation within the organization setting based on this theory of its significance to strategic planning or management. Below is a critical review of the theories of the nature of organizational culture, which will also include an analysis of how this may affect innovation within an organization, and in which ways the leaders of an organization can effectively manage it.
Various theories have been presented all seeking to illuminate the nature of organizational culture. A study of the works of Maanen and Schein (1977) for instance argue that the here and now behaviors adopted by members of an organization are associated with various attributed related to the organization or groups, but only certain patterns re passed from one group of organizational members to another.
According to Rose et al(2008) organizational culture is viewed as a means through which the problems experienced by workers can be brought to light, an principles are set, as are the expectations and behavior patterns and traditions that facilitate increased achievement. In this regard, organizational culture is seen as a tool to enhance achievement, and a means for the discovery of various human issues such as employee problems. Alternatively, Shahzad et al. (2012) argue that organizational culture can be conceptualized using two main approaches; the process oriented approach, and the classification approach. The process oriented approach assumes that organizational culture is a permanent response to certain problems (Shahzad et al, 2012). In this approach, organizational culture is perceived as an outline of hypothesis invented concerning a specific problem, and after testing is considered suitable (Shahzad et al., 2012). Three levels of culture are discussed in this approach, and these are behaviors which constitute the social and physical environment, values which entail the underlying meaning used to interpret the outline, and basic assumptions or norms which entail those behaviors which are difficult to learn or change (Shahzad et al., 2012).
A good example is the link provided between corporate culture and innovation. According to Holbeche (xi), strategic planning of an organization should be targeted towards building capabilities and organizational culture which is conducive of sustainable performance. Holbeche (2006) proceeds to note that the focus of a business should not solely be geared towards an organization’s future business, but rather on the growth of an organization’s revenue as well. As such, change management becomes a very critical aspect of organizational survival, which greatly requires increased focus for better management in order for the organization to grow, as opposed to destroying the various business capabilities that present an opportunity for innovation and new business activities (Holbeche, 2006). A high performing organization is identified as that which is flexible and innovative, thus allowing for the attraction and retention of employees (Holbeche, 2006). A high performing organization is also defined as that which possesses a culture that facilitates or is conducive to innovation and knowledge based creation (Holbeche, 2006). Thus, organizational culture in this context is not merely perceived as a tool for changing employee behavior, but a tool for facilitating desired employee behavior through the creation of a conducive environment for innovation and creation of new products and services.
But how does this relate to innovation. More importantly, the purpose of this paper is bent towards establishing a link to innovation. For instance, Indi dualism was common during the periods of intense innovation such as the renaissance and the French Enlightenment ( There are various theories linking the nature of organizational culture to innovation. What are these theories? Dasanayaka (2009) discusses the various implications of organizational culture on innovation, and also assess the degree of correlation between the scale of cultural dimensions and the degree of innovativeness.
What they do is that, they apply for visas and travel to these countries especially in the United States of America so that they may look for green pastures. Some result in that makes it in our lives during for other people personal life become more advanced given that they may find itself associated with the pubs because engagement in criminal ventures which they can easily favour in an attempt to endure.
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