According to Holbeche (2006), most organizations are resistant to change even when pressure dictating a change mounts against them and the main reason for this organizational behavior is as a result of organizational culture. This is because culture has been identified as one of the factors that changes behavior, and as such, the organizational culture will influence the behavior and attitudes of the employees or management concerning change. Today, organizational culture is not seen as simply an avenue for increasing a firm’s performance, but a tool for achieving so much more in business. This stand position can be justified by assessing the definition of organizational culture form Holbeche’s work. Holbeche (2006) defines organizational culture with great simplicity by describing it as “how we do things here.” According o Holbeche (200) culture has been perceived as one of the factors that promote a sense of identity among organizational employees, since it is essentially an unwritten guideline of how employees are supposed to behave within the context of the organization. As a result of this, several theories have been put forward which relate organizational culture to some of its perceived advantages.
Holbeche (2006) also notes that in as much as strategic innovation along with product improvement and flexibility are central in an organization’s working processes; these can only be achieved if the employees are willing to put in the necessary hard work, which is facilitated by a good organizational culture. So arguably, the organizational culture greatly affects innovation within the organization setting based on this theory of its significance to strategic planning or management. Below is a critical review of the theories of the nature of organizational culture, which will also include an analysis of how this may affect innovation within an organization, and in which ways the leaders of an organization can effectively manage it.
Various theories have been presented all seeking to illuminate the nature of organizational culture. A study of the works of Maanen and Schein (1977) for instance argue that the here and now behaviors adopted by members of an organization are associated with various attributed related to the organization or groups, but only certain patterns re passed from one group of organizational members to another.
Maanen and Schein (1977) thus connote social features to the concept of organizational culture since they perceive that the transfer of information and values is a social issue, and as such since these values and information is transferred, then organizational culture is of a social nature. Maanen and Schein (1977) argue that new members have to be taught about the traditions and the guidelines of the organization with an aim of averting the possibility of disruption of work, and this teaching and learning process is essentially referred to as the organizational socialization process. Organizational culture is thus perceived as a set of values, guidelines and other variations, which are passed on from one generation of workers to the next through a social process. However, while Maanen and Schein (1977) perceive the objective of the transference of these attitudes and values as a way to avoid embarrassment on the part of the new employees and as a way to reduce disruptions of work, a different perception of the nature of organizational culture is taken by the likes of Rose et al as discussed below.
The above does not tackle the transportation section that has its own particular requirements and related implications together with inter Alai, economy, emissions, amounts and support to severe factoring of all environmental effects. A large nation like Canada carries a large energy need simply to work and perform (Doern et al., 2001). The processing of main energy and their subsequent effects on transportation like transporting crude oil to the Gulf of Mexico factories exposes them to storms. This needs an industrial policy that aids definite value-added activities located nearer to home to reduce emissions and not as an obstruction to trade.
Removal of carbon dioxide and management of solar radiation techniques have been essential in formulation of environmental regulations tailored to mitigate global warming effects across the globe. Countries party to UNFCCC draft succinct environmental regulations mechanisms are merely aimed at preventing hazardous human interference with climate system. Stabilizing the atmosphere in a point where ecosystems adapt to climatic change naturally, and stable food production will ensure economic development proceed sustainably. As a developed country, the U.S. has the obligation of reducing its carbon emissions. The First World contribute most to greenhouse gases stock compared the low levels by Third World. In meeting development needs, Kyoto protocol requires that countries reduce carbon emissions.